तृतीयो अध्याय (श्लोक 36-43) Third chapter (Verses 36-43)
पाप प्रेरक श्रोत (Sources Inspiring for wrong actions)
अथ केन प्रयुक्तोऽयं पापं चरति पुरुषः ।
अनिच्छन्नपि वार्ष्णेय बलादिव नियोजितः ॥3-36॥
किससे प्रेरित पुरुष कर रहे पाप-कार्य प्रायोजन
बिन इच्छा के भी बलात्, वे करते है आयोजन ॥3-36॥
Arjuna asks Lord Krishna impelled by what, Krishna!, does the man commit sin even involuntarily, as though he is being forced. (3-36)
काम एष क्रोध एष रजोगुणसमुद्भवः ।
महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्धयेनमिह वैरिणम् ॥3-37॥
प्रकट रजोगुण से हो काम, क्रोध जब बाधा आये |
प्रेरित करें पाप आचरण हित मन को भरमाए||
तृप्त न हो यह काम कभी पापी महान बलवान|
समझो इन्हें सदा निश्चय ही दुर्जय शत्रु समान||||3-37||
Lord Krishna answers it is desire for materialistic attractions. Desire or lust (Kaam) and anger are intimately connected to a human being and are born out of Rajo guna (passion). When one desire is met, desire to get more is created. Thus desires or Kama could never be satisfied. (3-37)
धूमेनाव्रियते वह्निर्यथादर्शो मलेन च।
यथोल्बेनावृतो गर्भस्तथा तेनेदमावृतम् ॥3-38॥
धुंए से ढँक जाए अग्नि फिर बाहर से न चमकती
ढँकजाए यदि मैल से दर्पण न प्रतिबिम्ब झलकती
जेरी से जब गर्भ ढँके, तब भ्रूण न धड़कन पाए |
ढकले काम ज्ञान को, तब विवेक न कुछ कर पाए ||3-38||
Thick smoke from fire covers it, and fire is not able to do its fundamental job of providing brightness of light. Similarly a mirror when covered with dirt, is unable to do its job of reflecting the image. A child in womb is not free to move about. In the same way, when wisdom is covered by desire, the intellect or discriminatory power is suppressed and is unable to function properly. (3-38)
आवृतं ज्ञानमेतेन ज्ञानिनो नित्यवैरिणा ।
कामरूपेण कौन्तेय दुष्पूरेणानलेन च ॥3-39॥
मन कठिन है शांत करना, कामरूपी आग से |
इन्द्रियां न तृप्त होतीं काम भोग के राग से ||
कामनाओं से ढका होजाय सीमित जहां ज्ञान |
ज्ञानियों के लिए वह काम दुर्जय शत्रु जान ||3-39||
It is very difficult to pacify mind, when strong desires enter into it. The knowledge of even the most discerning gets covered by this perpetual enemy in the form of insatiable desire. which is never satisfied and burns like fire, O son of Kunti Arjuna! (3-39)
इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिरस्याधिष्ठानमुच्यते ।
एतैर्विमोहयत्येष ज्ञानमावृत्य देहिनम् ॥3-40॥
तस्मात्त्वमिन्द्रियाण्यादौ नियम्य भरतर्षभ ।
पाप्मानं प्रजहि ह्येनं ज्ञानविज्ञाननाशनम् ॥3-41॥
कहे जाते इन्द्रियां मन बुद्धि इसके अधिष्ठान|
देह-धारी को विमोहित कर रहा ढक सदा ज्ञान||
इसलिए आरम्भ से ही संयमित कर इन्द्रियों को|
काम पापी मार, ज्ञान विज्ञान नाशक इसको मान||3-40,41||
The senses, mind, and intellect are said to be breeding grounds of desire. Through them, it clouds one’s knowledge and deludes the embodied soul. (3-40)
Therefore, O best of the Bharatas, in the very beginning, bring the senses under control and slay this enemy called desire, which is the great symbol of sin [lust] and destroys knowledge and realization..(3-41)
इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः ।
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ॥3-42॥
एवं बुद्धेः परं बुद्धवा संस्तभ्यात्मानमात्मना ।
जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् ॥3-43॥
इन्द्रियों को श्रेष्ठ कहते, इन्द्रियों से श्रेष्ठ मन|
मन से श्रेष्ठ बुद्धि, उससे श्रेष्ठ स्वयं आत्मन्||
इस तरह बुद्धि से भी श्रेष्ठ आत्मा को समझ|
आत्मा द्वारा, दुर्जय कामरूपी शत्रु कर दमन||3-42,43||
The senses are said to be superior to the body. The mind is superior to the senses. Greater than the mind is the intellect; and what is greater than intellect is he(the self) (3-42)
Thus awakening is possible by the understanding to the Highest that the soul is superior to the material intellect, and one can, subdue the self (senses, mind, and intellect) by the self (strength of the soul), and kill this formidable enemy called lust. (3-43)
Desire or lust is the greatest enemy of a human being. Lust is insatiable and is a great devil.
It is lust, that becomes anger (when unfulfilled).
- Anger is nothing but manifestation of unfulfilled, obstructed desire
- When desire is fulfilled, this leads to greed.
Therefore intensity of anger is proportional to the intensity of desire. So they can be treated as two sides of the same coin. Individually, they are not separate, handling one is enough to handle the other. Thus, we should keep in mind the followings:
- Knowledge stand covered by this eternal enemy, known as desire, which is insatiable like fire.(In Sanskrit, अनलम् = अन् + अलम् – no satisfaction – that which cannot be satiated.) Desires are like fire. A fire can burn its very locus and similarly, desire it’s very origin. So while each desire gets fulfilled the list of unfulfilled desires grow. Only when leading a pious life can one discover this fundamental, root cause of dissatisfaction.
- Anger too is similar. Anger makes a person violent – verbally and physically.
- Such an extrovert, violent person, consumed by desire and anger, cannot follow Dharma and is bound to sin.
- When compared with the physical body which is gross, external and limited,
- the senses are certainly superior as they are more subtle, internal and have a wider range of activity. When desire gets generated, it finds its base first in sense organs which introduce sensuous objects to us.
- the mind is superior to the senses, as the senses cannot do anything independently without the help of the mind. The mind can perform the functions of the five senses. The mind imprints in the five senses and these sights, sounds, etc. (called vasanas) continues to dwell upon them and yearn for them again and again.
- the intellect is superior to the mind because it is endowed with the faculty of discrimination. When the mind is in a state of doubt? the intellect comes to its rescue. The intellect should discriminate between right and wrong judgment. Wrong judgment and delusive thinking convinces that external world can give joy and satisfaction and increases obsession with the desire.
- The Self is superior even to the intellect. “I” or self is the source of joy or sorrow. Take the example of a rope. When in darkness, a garland mistaken to be a snake can be the source of fear. But in brightness, understanding the original nature of the rope dispels our misgivings. Similarly, when misunderstood “I” becomes the source of sorrow. But when its proper nature is understood, “I” becomes a source of joy. The world by itself is not a source of joy or sorrow.
So, the self needs to be enlightened
Self enlightenment: There are four supreme effort oriented gains (Purushatha): 1.Duty (Dharma), 2. Money (Artha), 3. Desire (Kama), 4. Liberation (Moksha) to strive for. Out of four supreme effort oriented gains (Purushatha), Money (Artha) and Desire (kama) are considered important, but dharma and moksha are still more important. When artha and kama are considered more important than dharmaand mokhsa, that becomes an obstacle in achieving the goal of life. There are two stages to handle this obstacle:
Dhamaha(दमः) – Mastery of sense organs; don’t let anything enter your mind without control.
Shamaha(शमः) – Discipline of mind and thought pattern. Undisciplined mind has a tendency to get attracted to anything.
Vivekaha(विवेकः) – Discrimination; understanding that finite plus finite is always finite; insecurity plus insecurity is more insecurity.
Self awakening: Understand that I am complete (पूर्णत्वं) with myself and I will not be full with any amount of acquisition. Obsolete solution is to discover fullness and security within self by self awakening.