गीता-गीत GITA GEET
तृतीयो अध्याय (श्लोक 27-35)Third chapter(Verses 27-35)
सांख्य-योग दर्शन से कर्मयोग (Sankhya Yoga to Karma Yoga)
प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः ।
अहंकारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते ॥3-27॥
प्रकृति के गुणों से किये जाते सभी कर्म|
मोह से विमूढ़ जन नहीं समझे यह मर्म||
स्वयं को, अहंकार के बस वे कर्ता कहते |
परन्तु कर्म निज प्रकृति के बस ही करते ||3-27||
All actions are performed as per one’s own Prakriti or inherent nature. Prakrti denotes the universal aggregate of internal energy and power. Governed by them alone activities are going on in the world. Not knowing that this is so, one under delusion feels and says ‘I am the doer or performer’. (3-27)
तत्त्ववित्तु महाबाहो गुणकर्मविभागयोः ।
गुणा गुणेषु वर्तन्त इति मत्वा न सज्जते॥3-28॥
प्रकृति के तेईस गुण-तत्वों से है श्रृष्टि सब|
कर्म, इनके परस्पर संबधों हित प्रयत्न जब||
गुण कर्म विभागों का हो ज्ञान यदि, अर्जुन!|
गुण गुणों में वर्त रहे, क्यों हो! आसक्ति तब||3-28||
There are twenty three elements characteristic features as per Sankkya Yoga Philosphy
Three Subtle body: False-ego, Intelligence, Mind
Five gross elements: Ether, Air, Fire, Water, Earth
Five sense objects: Sound, Touch, Sight,Taste, Smell
Five knowledge-acquiring senses: Ear, Skin, Eye, Tongue, Nose
Five working senses: Voice, Legs, Arms, Reproductive organs, Evacuating organs
The senses naturally run toward the sense objects and their mutual interaction creates sensations of pleasure and pain. For example, the taste buds experience joy in contact with delicious foods and distress in contact with bitter foods. The mind repeatedly contemplates the sensations of pleasure and pain which it associates with these objects. Thoughts of pleasure in the sense objects create attachment while thoughts of pain create aversion. Shree Krishna tells Arjun to succumb neither to feelings of attachment nor aversion.(3-28)
प्रकृतेर्गुणसम्मूढ़ाः सज्जन्ते गुणकर्मसु ।
तानकृत्स्नविदो मन्दान्कृत्स्नविन्न विचालयेत्॥3-29॥
प्रकृति के गुणतत्वों में मोहित, सब होरहे व्यस्त|
गुणतत्त्वों से सम्बंधित कर्मों में, सतत आसक्त ||
इन अबोध, आसक्त-जनों को, नहीं करें विचलित|
गुण-तत्वों के ज्ञानीजन, सदा कर्मों से अनासक्त||3-29||
Ignorant human-beings become bewildered by the characteristic features of the material energy of nature or Prakriti. Bewildered by the modes of material nature, the ignorant fully engage themselves in material activities and become attached. They work for to enjoy sensual and mental delights. They are unable to perform actions as a matter of duty, without desiring rewards. The persons, with knowledge of these elements of nature, should not disturb the mind of these ignorant persons without knowledge. Rather, they should instruct the ignorant to perform their respective assigned actions, and slowly help them rise above attachment. (3-29)
मयि सर्वाणि कर्माणि सन्नयस्याध्यात्मचेतसा ।
निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः ॥3-30॥
अर्पित सभी कर्म प्रभु को कर, लक्ष्य आत्म-उत्थान |
न फ़ल की हो अभिलाषा, न कभी हो उनका ध्यान ||
लें नहिं श्रेय सफल होने पर, न करें कभी अभिमान |
बिन संताप युद्ध कर, यह निज नियत कर्म ही मान||3-30||
Do actions without desire and attachment leaving everything on God, Do not take any credit for the success you achieve and undertake this war in the state of peace considering this as your assigned duty.
ये मे मतमिदं नित्यमनुतिष्ठन्ति मानवाः ।
श्रद्धावन्तोऽनसूयन्तो मुच्यन्ते तेऽति कर्मभिः॥3-31॥
जो मानव हैं दोषान्वेष्ण-बुद्धि रहित|
श्रृद्धा से भरपूर, मेरे इस मत के हित||
करते हैं अनुशरण नित्य ही इसी तरह|
न कभी बंधे वे कर्मफलों से किसी तरह||3-31||
One who does not criticize others and executes his duties according to Krishna’s philosophy and who follows this teaching faithfully, without envy, becomes free from the bondage of fruit of actions.(3-31)
ये त्वेतदभ्यसूयन्तो नानुतिष्ठन्ति मे मतम् ।
जो भी इन सब पर दोषारोपण करते |
मेरे मत का न कभी अनुकरण करते||
वे सब ज्ञान-विमूढ़ हो चुके ऐसा जानो|
नष्ट विवेक-बुद्धि वाले ही उनको मानो||3-32||
But those who find fault with my teaching out of envy and disregard these teachings and do not practice them regularly, they are bewildered in all knowledge and fated to be destroyed. (3-32)
सदृशं चेष्टते स्वस्याः प्रकृतेर्ज्ञानवानपि ।
प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि निग्रहः किं करिष्यति॥3-33॥
ज्ञानवान भी करते चेष्टा प्रकृति अनुसार |
अपनी-प्रकृति सदृश ही उनके सभी विचार||
प्राणिमात्र ही चलते अपनी प्रकृति की ओर|
हठ से बदल नहीं सकते निज-प्रकृति-विकार||3-33||
The accumulated impressions of virtue, vice, knowledge, desire etc., which become manifest at the commencement of the present life (janma) is called prakriti here. All creatures act only according to it. It is natural instinct since it is their nature (prakriti). When even a wise-man behave according to his own nature and all beings follow their nature, what restraint will do? (3-33)
इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ ।
तयोर्न वशमागच्छेत्तौ ह्यस्य परिपन्थिनौ ॥3-34॥
इन्द्रिय के इन्द्रिय-विषयों में, राग द्वेष दोनों रहते |
उनके वश में मत होजाओ, इनको पथ-बाधक कहते ॥3-34॥
Attraction and repulsion for sense objects are felt by all embodied beings. Perform your duty without being influenced by attachments and aversions for sense-objects because they are stumbling blocks on the path of self-realization.(3-34)
श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।
स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः ॥3-35॥
चाहे लगे गुणहीन, स्वधर्म सदा श्रेयस्कर|
अच्छे निभाये गए, दूसरे धर्म से बेहतर ||
अपने धर्म में मरना भी होता हितकारी |
धर्म दूसरे का होता, सर्वदा ही भयकर ||3-35||
It is far better to discharge one’s own prescribed duties, even though they may look faulty, than another’s duty well accomplished. Destruction in the course of performing one’s own duty is better than engaging in another’s duties, since leaving your own assigned duties and performing another’s duty will always give fear.(3-35)
LEARNING FROM GITA
In the discharge of our worldly duty, we will have to encounter all kinds of likeable and unlikeable situations. We must practice neither to yearn for the likeable situations, nor to avoid the unlikeable situations. And when we become indifferent to both pleasure and pain in the discharge of our duty, we will become truly free to act from our higher nature.
All actions are performed by Prakrti through its gunas (qualities or evolutes) of Prakrti (nature). Those, whose egos create confusion, think they themselves are the doer of actions in the world.
- A) Five-parts process of Karma Yoga: In the shloka (3-30), lord Krishna has mentioned four words in addition to dedication to the God: Adhyatma Chetasa, Nirashi, Nirmamaha, VigataJvara. All these are included in the five parts process of Karmayoga:
- Dedicate all your actions to god so you don’t hate any of your duty. Do not take credit of action you are performing
- Be Adhyatma Chetasa: or with intellect (viveka buddh) i.e. with Power to discriminate, Priorities of life must be clear. Spiritual progress must be primary goal; material progress only a secondary goal, all other goals are subservient to this goal.
- One should be Nirashi (free from anxiety about results). Plan, implement and leave the rest to the Lord. Be prepared for any future situations because future is not under your control. You are not the only one responsible for your success.
- Be Nirmamaha. If you are successful it is because of invisible factors. Most of them are not under your control. So, don’t claim total credit. Remember there are a number of hidden variables (collectively attributed to the Divine) that also helped
- Be VigataJvara: There are usually 2 types of feverishness: one is physical and the other is mental (stress). Equanimity means being immune to jvara. Maintain mental poise/balance. This may be termed as Samatvam or Vigatjvara.
We function in both ways as Kartha (performer) and Bhokta (consumer of fruits of actions). Equanimity can be disturbed in two ways.
- As a Karta: Equanimity can be disturbed when performing a variety of actions. When I perform actions I don’t like, I have tensions. There is resistance every moment.
- As a Bhoktha: When the results of actions are not as per our expectations.
A Karma Yogi must be an embodiment of enthusiasm. This is equanimity as a Kartha. When he does not worry about the results and prepared to consume happily the fruits of action. This is the equanimity of Bhokta.
B) Relation between Nature and actions (Prakriti and Karma):
- One should select his career or profession after studying his own nature.
- One should not get disturbed with the other’s behaviour as others act according to their own nature.
C) Performing assigned duties or Dharma: Perform with your best for the duties assigned to you. Do not consider that duties assigned to others are better than yours, and get disturbed.