GITA-GEET Chapter 2 (20-26)
गीता-गीत द्वितीय-अध्याय श्लोक(20-26)
INTRODUCTION TO SANKHYA PHILOSOPHY
साङ्ख्य-योग का परिचय (आत्मा)
न तो यह जन्म लेती है न ही मरती कभी भी,
न यह हुई, न होगी, न होने जा रही अभी भी |
अजन्मा है यह नित्य शाश्वत यह पुरातन है,
जब देह मरती है, न मरती आत्मा तभी भी ||2-20||
आत्मा को अजन्मा नित्य अव्यय जानता है|
इसे जो व्यक्ति अविनाशी सदा से मानता है
मरवा सकता है किस तरह वह, किसी को
सुनो अर्जुन! फिर वह कैसे किसको मारता है||2-21||
पुराने वस्त्र जैसे सब मनुष्य छोड़ देते हैं,
नवीन वस्त्रों को पहन बदन पर ओढ़ लेते हैं|
जब शरीर जीर्ण-शीर्ण हो तो आत्माएं स्वयं ,
पुनर्जन्म ले नाता नवीन तन से जोड़ लेते हैं ||2-22||
न काट सकते हैं शस्त्र आत्मा को कभी भी ,
न पावक से इसको जलाया ही जा सकता||
जल से भी इसको कभी भिगो नहीं सकते ‘
न इसको हवा से सुखाया ही जा सकता||2-23||
न ही कट सकती यह, नही यह जल सकती,
न भीग सकती है, न ही सुखा सकते इसको|
निरंतर, सर्वव्यापी और सदा से ही यह स्थिर,
अचल और सत्य सनातन सब कहते इसको||2-24||
यह आत्मा है अव्यक्त अतः कहते अवर्णनीय,
निर्गुण-निराकार है अतः नहीं कभी चिन्तनीय |
परमात्म-तत्व से सम्बद्ध अतः सदा अविकारी,
यह ज्ञान प्राप्तकर ही तो आत्मा नहीं शोचनीय||2-25||
Sankhya is the highest knowledge and that is why Krishna Gives its implications first in chapter two of Bhagavad Gita. Sanskrit word Samkhya means number. Samkhya philosophy deals with the number and nature of realities or ultimate constituents of the universe emerged from Supreme Energy (ब्रम्ह). Purusha and prakriti are the two components of Supreme Energy (called Brahma) responsible for the creation of the UNIVERSE. Samkhya states that the individual human being has 24 Reality- elements of nature, or evolutes, that develop progressively out of one another. When Consciousness, or Purusha, the eternal reality combines with all these Realities of nature, the creation takes place.
Literal meaning of Sankhya is “discrimination” between Purusha (energy of soul) from Prakriti (Original nature) so as to show the liberation of ‘Purusha’. The focus is to discriminate between purusha and the higher mental states: manas and buddhi, which are part of Prakriti. In these verses of Gita, characteristic features of soul-energy has been explained.
The soul is never born, nor does It ever die; after having been, He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. It is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. Soul is not killed when the body is killed.(2-20)
It slays not, nor is It gets killed. He who knows the Spirit as Indestructible, Immortal, Unborn, Always-the-Same, how should he kill or cause to be killed?(2-21)
As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul also renounces old and useless body and holds a new physical body. (2-22)
Since it is formless and shapeless, the soul can never be cut to pieces by any weapon, Fire cannot burn it or destroy it. Water cannot wet it because water can only act on elements which have a physical description or dimension. For the same reason, wind cannot dry it or exert any force on it. This Self is un-manifested, unthinkable and unchangeable (2-23).
That is why it is referred to as nitya or permanent or unchangeable. This permanence gives it the powers of omnipresence, omniscience and stability. It is this stability that gives it the quality of immovability and the aatman is called sanatana. Sanatana literally means – that which is not created or destroyed – it belongs to time immemorial.(2-24)
The aatman cannot be known or understood by purely using the brain and its mental powers. Hence it is known as ‘avyakta’ or indescribable – that which defies description. It cannot be known purely by meditating or thinking upon it (’chintan’) – hence it is known as ‘achintya’. Only those entities that can be perceived by our five senses can be understood by ‘chintan’.
Since the aatman cannot be described by any elements known to man, it is without shape or ‘vikaar’ and is known as ‘avikaari’ or immutable. It is beyond the range of form or thought and the changes that affect the mind, life and body do not touch him. Forms may change; things may come and go but that which remains behind them all is everlasting.(2-25)
Learning from Gita: In these verses, Gita explains that we all are only souls energised by the everlasting infinite source of Supreme Energy covered with ever-changing body constituted from the different elements of the nature. This shows that
- We all are immortals, there is no need to worry about death.
- Do your assigned duty fearlessly, nobody can kill you nor you can kill anybody.
- For the nature, change is inevitable. Even our body cells are changing every moment, then why we be scared of changes likely to be there in future.
- This conclude that everyone should live stress-free happy life.